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Welcome to MarsPapers, the Mars Society archive of Mars related papers and presentations. All documents in this archive are available in pdf format for viewing in your browser or they may be downloaded for off-line reading.



MarsPapers Policy Statement


The Mars Society accepts for posting in its Marspapers library any formally presented paper that meets the requirements of the authors' instructions formatting and is accompanied by the signed copyright license agreement and which bears a relationship to the purposes of the Mars Society, the founding declaration of the Mars Society, or to Mars in general.


In the spirit of openness to the expression of all ideas that cut across a wide range of topics and expertise, the papers presented at Mars Society Conventions that are submitted formally for publication by the Mars Society and/or for inclusion in the MarsPapers archive are not peer reviewed, although specific abstracts and papers may be deemed unacceptable if they are considered to be primarily unsubstantiated opinion or a tirade or if they are deemed socially or politically offending in some way. Peer reviewed papers from other organizations and journals are encouraged for posting in Marspapers if the author has retained copyright and will give the Mars Society permission to post the paper. The Mars Society also encourages the submission of responses to posted papers or preprints of papers prepared independently, subject to the guidelines discussed above.



While most of the documents in this archive have been presented at the Mars Society annual Convention, we encourage everyone with a Mars related paper to submit it for inclusion in MarsPapers where it is available for public reading. You may email your paper for inclusion in the MarsPapers archive to the Editor of Mars Society Proceedings, even if the paper has been presented or published elsewhere as long as you, the author, have retained copyrights to your paper and can give permission to the Mars Society to publish your paper in the MarsPapers archives.


To submit your paper to MarsPapers, first download and read the TMS Author's Instructions.


Currently the MarsPapers archive contains over 400 documents. Each document is categorized by one of the following keywords.


Keyword List of Categories for Archive

Shortname Label

Mars in History, the Arts, and Fiction


Political Action


Education and Public Outreach


Private Funding and Commercial Investment


Robotic Exploration


Human Exploration


Human Settlement


Science and the Search for Life




Utilizing Martian Resources


Human Factors and Crew Considerations




Law and Society


Computer and Communications Infrastructure


Philosophical, Ethical,  and Societal Implications


Mars Mission Planning and Engineering


Propulsion and Power Systems


Analog Mars Research and Research Stations


Mission Support


Mars Society Organization and Processes



To aid your search there are specially sorted lists of the archive that provide links to each paper and a short abstract of the paper.


To view the list sorted by year, then category, then author, use

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To view the list sorted by category, then year of creation, then author, use



To view the list sorted by author, then year, then category, use



To Google search the indexed text of the entire MarsPapers archive, use


only search MarsPapers


Many of the papers appearing in this archive have been published in book form. The sorted lists indicate the publication status of each paper.


You may order a print copy of the full Proceedings of the Founding Convention of the Mars Society 1998 from:

Univelt, Inc., P.O. Box 28130, San Diego, California 92198.

Tel. (760) 746-4005; Fax. (760) 746-3139.

Web Site:

ISBN 0-912183-12-8 (Part I)

ISBN 0-912183-13-6 (Part II)

ISBN 0-912183-14-4 (Part III)


There are another 96 papers from the 1999-2001 Conventions that have been published by Apogee. Some of the papers are available on the CD that accompanies the book:


On to Mars: Colonizing a New World (Apogee Books Space Series)

Compiled by Robert Zubrin and Frank Crossman

Publisher: Apogee Books; Book and CD-ROM edition (August 2002)

ISBN: 1-896522-90-4


There are another 99 unpublished papers from 1999-2004 Conventions that have been published by Apogee in a second book. Some of the papers are available on the CD that accompanies the book as well as 30 ÄúWhy Mars?Äù essays and songs from 2000 and 2004:


On to Mars 2: Exploring and Settling A New World

Compiled and edited by Frank Crossman and Robert Zubrin

Publisher: Apogee Books; Book and CD-ROM edition (September 2005)

ISBN 1-894959-30-2


The Apogee books are available at many book stores and at